During the Crusader period, additional places came to be venerated as the biblical Emmaus: 

Ha-Motza (see question № 3), Karyat-al-Eynab (Abu-Gosh), and, later, Qubeibe. The reason for the emergence of these new traditions was a general trend of that time to situate the Holy places close to each other on the passable roads. The identification of the Holy Places was often created by travellers themselves. Thus, in 12th century, the hill of Latrun in the area of Emmaus-Nicopolis was identified by some Western pilgrims as Modiin. Gradually, this identification spread to Emmaus, which was considered to be the burial place of “seven Maccabean brothers” until the 19th century, while Latrun, from the early 16th cent., became the home of the Good Thief (Castellum Boni Latronis). Karyat-al-Eynab (Abu-Gosh), the biblical Kiryat -Yearim, from the 12th to the mid 13th century, was identified by some Crusaders as Emmaus (a tradition revived by French monks in the 20th century), and from 16th to 20th century, it was considered to be the biblical village of Anathoth, the birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah.

  The tradition which placed Emmaus in Qubeibe was perhaps born in the 13th century.   It was especially popular during the 16th – 17th centuries, and was revived in the second half of the 19th century by Franciscan monks. Neither Abu-Gosh nor Qubeibe have ever had the name of "Emmaus" in the mouth of the local people and have not been venerated as such by Orthodox or any other Eastern Christians (except, perhaps, those who were particularly influenced by their western brothers). Abu Gosh is situated 13.5 km (73 stadia) from Jerusalem, while Qubeibe lies 14.3 km (77 stadia) from Jerusalem—apparently taken by medieval travellers as the distance of about 60 stadia, mentioned in most of the manuscripts of the Gospel of Luke. After being linked to the memory of the apparition of Jesus in Emmaus, Abu Gosh and Qubeibe were also identified as the place of victory of Judas the Maccabee over the Greeks, since Christian tradition has never separated those two events. Today no one doubts that the battle of Judas against the Syrian army took place in the valley of Ayalon, in the area of Emmaus-Nicopolis. The original identification of Abu Gosh and Qubeibe with the biblical Emmaus thus did not appear as a fruit of a historic or archaeological research, but as a fruit of the piety of Western pilgrims during the Crusades and the Renaissance. Even when other identifications of Emmaus existed, Emmaus-Nicopolis continued to be venerated as the New Testament Emmaus both by Orthodox and Catholic Christians ( including the Russian Abbot Daniel, who visited Emmaus in 1106 (Vincent & Abel, "Emmaüs", Paris, 1932, p.421), a Greek pilgrim named Johannes Phocas who visited it in 1185 ( PG CXXXIII, 960), the Franciscan monk Antonio de Medina, pilgrim in 1485 ( P. Duvignau, "Emmaüs, le site - le mystère", Paris, 1937, p.98-101, and 178), etc. )



  About the identification of Emmaus during the Crusader period, see: M.-V. Guérin, "Description de la Palestine", Paris, 1868, p. 348-361, Vincent & Abel, «Emmaüs», Paris, 1932, p. 381-402; D. Baldi, "Enchiridion Locorum Sanctorum", Jerusalem, 1955, p. 706-719; P. Sabino de Sandoli, "The Sanctuary of Emmaus", Jerusalem, 1966; M. Benvenisti, "The Crusader of the Holy Land", Jerusalem, 1970, p. 343-351; K. Setton, ed., "A History of the Crusades", Wisconsin, 1985, v. IV, p. 112-113, 259-260; (see here), D. Pringle, "The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem", Cambridge, 1995, p. 52-59; "Abu-Gosh", editions du Gulf Stream, 1995; V. Michel, "Le complexe ecclésiastique d'Emmaüs-Nicopolis", Paris, Sorbonne, 1996-97, p. 46-49; R. Ellenblum, "Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem", Cambridge, 1998, p. 109-118. See also M. Ehrlich, "The Identification of Emmaus with Abu-Goš in the Crusader Period Reconsidered ", ZDPV 112 (1996), 2, p.165-169

A part of the map "Palestine of Crusades", published by F. J. Salmon in Jaffa in 1924, representing roads connecting Jerusalem to Jaffa. Emmaus-Nicopolis appears as Imwas, Abu-Gosh as "spring of Emmaus Fontenoid", Qubeibeh, as "La petite Mahomerie"

One cannot exclude the possible existence of an ancient Christian tradition which would venerate the meeting place of Jesus with the two disciples on their way to Emmaus somewhere near today's Abu Gosh. We find an indirect confirmation of this in one of the ancient manuscripts of the Syriac New Testament (Vetus Syra, manuscript SySP), which renders Luke 24:13 as follows: "He appeared to two of them on the same day as they went to a village called Emmaus and were sixty stadia away from Jerusalem." In 1878, Saint Mariam of Bethlehem pointed to the village of Abu Gosh as the place where the two disciples met the risen Jesus, before heading to Emmaus-Nicopolis (see Ottoman period).

St. Mariam of Bethlehem

Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6